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3P Paradigm: The “3P” Paradigm - prevention, protection, and prosecution - serves as the fundamental international framework to combat human trafficking. (https://www.state.gov/3ps-prosecution-protection-and-prevention/)
The Action, Means, and Purpose (AMP) Model: A visual depiction of the main elements of trafficking in persons: Action, Means, and Purpose. (https://www.acf.hhs.gov/otip/fact-sheet/resource/fshumantrafficking)
Child Soldier: A child soldier may be understood as any person under 18 years of age who takes a direct part in hostilities as a member of governmental armed forces, police, or other security forces; any person under 18 years of age who has been compulsorily recruited into governmental armed forces, police, or other security forces; any person under 15 years of age who has been voluntarily recruited into governmental armed forces, police, or other security forces; or any person under 18 years of age who has been recruited or used in hostilities by armed forces distinct from the armed forces of a state. (22 U.S.C. § 2370c):
Coercion: Coercion for the purposes of combating trafficking in persons may be understood as threats of serious harm to or physical restraint against any person; any scheme, plan, or pattern intended to cause a person to believe that failure to perform an act would result in serious harm to or physical restraint against any person; or the abuse or threatened abuse of the legal process (22 U.S.C. § 7102 (3))
Commercial Sex Act: Any sex act on account of which anything of value is given to or received by any person. (22 U.S.C. § 7102 (4))
Credible Information: For the purposes of combating trafficking in persons, the term “credible information” may be understood to mean actionable information that is in the possession of U.S. authorities and includes reports from federal departments and agencies, documentation provided by a foreign country, materials from civil society organizations, academic reports, media reports, and information from survivors of human trafficking vulnerable persons, and whistleblowers. (22 U.S.C. § 7102 (6))
Debt Bondage: The status or condition of a debtor arising from a pledge by the debtor of his or her personal services or of those of a person under his or her control as a security for debt, if the value of those services as reasonably assessed is not applied toward the liquidation of the debt or the length and nature of those services are not respectively limited and defined. (22 U.S.C. § 7102 (7))
Demand-Side Approach to Combating Sex Trafficking: The combating trafficking approach that focuses on targeting the demand side of sex trafficking by enhancing and encouraging enforcement of penalties against those who buy commercial sex.
Department of Defense Inspector General: The Department of Defense Inspector General (DoD IG) acts as the principal advisor to the Secretary of Defense in matters of Department fraud, waste, and abuse. The DoD IG has a hotline to report fraud, waste, and abuse, including trafficking in persons incidents: dodig.mil/hotline or 800.424.9098.
Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR): The FAR is the primary regulation for executive agencies governing the acquisition of supplies and services with appropriated funds.
Force: Force means (A) the use of a weapon; (B) the use of such physical strength or violence as is sufficient to overcome, restrain, or injure a person; or (C) inflicting physical harm sufficient to coerce or compel submission by the victim. (Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ), 10 U.S.C. § 920)
Forced Labor: Knowingly providing or obtaining the labor or services of a person (1) By threats of serious harm to, or physical restraint against, that person or another person; (2) By means of any scheme, plan, or pattern intended to cause the person to believe that, if the person did not perform such labor or services, that person or another person would suffer serious harm or physical restraint; or (3) By means of the abuse or threatened abuse of law or the legal process. (FAR 22.1702)
Forcible Pandering (UCMJ Article 120c): Compelling another person to engage in an act of prostitution with any person.
Fraud: Fraud consists of some deceitful practice or willful device, resorted to with intent to deprive another of his right, or in some manner to do him an injury. In the context of human trafficking, fraud often involves false promises of jobs or other opportunities. (22 U.S.C. § 7101(b4))
Gross Violations of Human Rights (GVHRs): GVHRs include torture or cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment, prolonged detention without charges and trial, causing the disappearance of persons by the abduction and clandestine detention of those persons, and other flagrant denial of the right to life, liberty, or the security of person. Any foreign official who engages in trafficking in persons under color of law is committing a GVHR.
Human Trafficking: Human trafficking is a colloquial term; trafficking in persons is the term that has been used in U.S. law. 22 U.S.C. § 7102 (11) defines "severe forms of trafficking in persons" as:
A. sex trafficking in which a commercial sex act is induced by force, fraud, or coercion, or in which the person induced to perform such act has not attained 18 years of age; or
B. the recruitment, harboring, transportation, provision, or obtaining of a person for labor or services, through the use of force, fraud, or coercion for the purpose of subjection to involuntary servitude, peonage, debt bondage, or slavery.
Human Smuggling: Human smuggling is the facilitation, transportation, attempted transportation, or illegal entry of a person(s) across an international border, in violation of one or more countries' laws, either clandestinely or through deception, such as the use of fraudulent documents. People who are smuggled are complicit in the smuggling crime and are not necessarily victims. (United States Attorney’s Office District of Utah: https://www.justice.gov/usao-ut/immigration)
Involuntary Servitude: Includes a condition of servitude induced by means of (A) any scheme, plan, or pattern intended to cause a person to believe that, if the person did not enter into or continue in such condition, that person or another person would suffer serious harm or physical restraint; or (B) the abuse or threatened abuse of the legal process. (22 U.S.C. § 7102 (8))
Labor trafficking: Labor trafficking is a colloquial term for forced labor. See forced labor for legal definition.
Military Extraterritorial Jurisdiction Act: The Military Extraterritorial Jurisdiction Act (MEJA) is the law that establishes United States Federal jurisdiction over offenses committed outside the United States including trafficking in persons offenses by persons employed by or accompanying the Armed Forces, or by members of the Armed Forces who are released or separated from active duty prior to being identified and prosecuted for the commission of such offenses, and for other purposes. (10 U.S.C. § 3261-3267)
Minor: Under the Trafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPA), a minor is any person under the age of 18.
National Human Trafficking Resource Center: A nongovernmental organization working to combat human trafficking. The National Human Trafficking Resource Center (NHTRC) maintains a national, toll-free hotline, available to answer calls from anywhere in the United States 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, every day of the year. Callers can report tips and receive information on human trafficking by calling the hotline at 1-888-373-7888. The hotline also provides data on where cases of suspected human trafficking are occurring in the United States.
Patronizing a Prostitute (Charged under UCMJ Article 134 Pandering and Prostitution): (a) That the accused engaged in a sexual act with another person not the accused’s spouse; (b) That the accused compelled, induced, enticed, or procured such person to engage in a sexual act in exchange for money or other compensation; (c) That this act was wrongful; and (d) That, under the circumstances, the conduct of the accused was either: (i) to the prejudice of good order and discipline in the armed forces; (ii) was of a nature to bring discredit upon the armed forces; or (iii) to the prejudice of good order and discipline in the armed forces and of a nature to bring discredit upon the armed forces.
Peonage/Debt Bondage: The status or condition of a debtor arising from a pledge by the debtor of his or her personal services or of those of a person under his or her control as a security for debt, if the value of those services as reasonably assessed is not applied toward the liquidation of the debt or the length and nature of those services are not respectively limited and defined.
Pimp: A pimp is an intermediary who procures a prostitute for customers. He/she controls and financially benefits from the commercial sexual exploitation of another person. (Black’s Law Dictionary)
Prostitute: A prostitute is a person who performs acts of prostitution; a person paid to engage in sexual acts.
Severe Forms of Trafficking in Persons: The TVPA defines "severe forms of trafficking in persons" as sex trafficking in which a commercial sex act is induced by force, fraud, or coercion, or in which the person induced to perform such act has not attained 18 years of age; or the recruitment, harboring, transportation, provision, or obtaining of a person for labor or services, through the use of force, fraud, or coercion for the purpose of subjection to involuntary servitude, peonage, debt bondage, or slavery (22 U.S.C. § 7102(11))
Sex Trafficking: Means the recruitment, harboring, transportation, provision, obtaining, patronizing, or soliciting of a person for the purpose of a commercial sex act. (22 U.S.C. § 7102(12))
Trafficking Victims Protection Act (Public Law 106-386): The Trafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPA) of 2000 is the first comprehensive federal law to address human trafficking. The TVPA addressed existing gaps in the legal framework by creating new criminal offenses and establishing victim protections. The law created a three-pronged approach of prevention, protection, and prosecution.
Uniform Code of Military Justice: The Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ) is the criminal code that applies to Service members and (among others) in time of declared war or a contingency operation, persons serving with or accompanying an armed force in the field. Offenses related to sex trafficking that may be prosecuted under the UCMJ include prostitution; patronizing a prostitute; forcible pandering; pandering by compelling, inducing, enticing, or procuring an act of prostitution; and pandering by arranging or receiving consideration for arranging for sexual intercourse or sodomy.
Victim-Centered Approach: A victim-centered approach means the victim's wishes, safety, and well-being take priority in all matters and procedures. A victim-centered approach seeks to minimize re-traumatization associated with the criminal justice process by providing the support of victim advocates and service providers.
Victim/Witness Advocate: A Service or local civilian victim advocate is an individual trained to assist investigative professionals by offering support to potential victims.
Women Peace and Security Act (P.L. 115-68) The WPS Act aims to promote the meaningful participation of women in negotiation and mediation processes seeking to prevent, mitigate, or resolve violent conflict. The WPS Act requires the Secretary of Defense to ensure that relevant personnel receive training, as appropriate, in gender considerations and meaningful participation by women, including training regarding—(A) international human rights law and international humanitarian law, as relevant; and (B) protecting civilians from violence, exploitation, and trafficking in persons.