Glossary

Child Soldiering: The crime of knowingly recruiting, enlisting, or conscripting a person to serve while such person is under 15 years of age in an armed force or group; or using a person under 15 years of age to participate actively in hostilities; knowing such person is under 15 years of age.

Coercion: (A) Threats of serious harm to or physical restraint against any person; (B) any scheme, plan, or pattern intended to cause a person to believe that failure to perform an act would result in serious harm to or physical restraint against any person; or (C) the abuse or threatened abuse of the legal system.

Compel: To force or coerce a person into doing something against their will.

Commercial Sex Act (TVPA Definition): Any sex act on account of which anything of value is given to or received by any person.

Debt Bondage/Peonage (TVPA Definition): The status or condition of a debtor arising from a pledge by the debtor of his or her personal services or of those of a person under his or her control as a security for debt, if the value of those services (as reasonably assessed) is not applied toward the elimination of the debt or the length and nature of those services are not respectively limited and defined.

Defense Criminal Investigative Organization (DCIO): Department of Defense organizations that conduct criminal and civil investigations in support of crucial national defense priorities.

Demand-Side Approach to Combating Sex Trafficking: The combating trafficking approach that focuses on targeting the demand side of sex trafficking by enhancing and encouraging enforcement of penalties against those who buy commercial sex.

Department of Defense Inspector General: The Department of Defense Inspector General (IG) acts as the principal advisor to the Secretary of Defense in matters of Department fraud, waste, and abuse.

Domestic Service: Work performed in a household by someone who is not a member of the family.

Employee: Under FAR 52.222-50, Employee means an employee of a contractor directly engaged in the performance of work under a government contract, including all direct cost employees and any other contractor employee who has other than a minimal impact or involvement in contract performance.

Extortion: The use, or the express or implicit threat of the use, of violence or other criminal means to cause harm to person, reputation, or property as a means to obtain property from someone else with his consent.

Federal Acquisition Regulation: The Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) is the set of rules that consists of regulations issued by agencies of the federal government of the United States to govern the process through which the government purchases (i.e., acquires) goods and services.

Force: Physical restraint or causing serious harm.

Forced Labor (FAR 22.17 Definition): Knowingly providing or obtaining the labor or services of a person (1) By threats of serious harm to, or physical restraint against, that person or another person; (2) By means of any scheme, plan, or pattern intended to cause the person to believe that, if the person did not perform such labor or services, that person or another person would suffer serious harm or physical restraint; or (3) By means of the abuse or threatened abuse of law or the legal process.

Fraud: A false representation—whether by words or by conduct, by false or misleading allegations, or by concealment of what should have been disclosed—that deceives and is intended to deceive another so that the individual will act upon it to her or his legal injury.

Human Trafficking: The TVPA defines "severe forms of trafficking in persons" as: (A) sex trafficking in which a commercial sex act is induced by force, fraud, or coercion, or in which the person induced to perform such act has not attained 18 years of age; or (B) the recruitment, harboring, transportation, provision, or obtaining of a person for labor or services, through the use of force, fraud, or coercion for the purpose of subjection to involuntary servitude, peonage, debt bondage, or slavery.

Involuntary Servitude: A condition of servitude induced by means of (A) any scheme, plan, or pattern intended to cause a person to believe that, if the person did not enter into or continue in such condition, that person or another person would suffer serious harm or physical restraint; or (B) the abuse or threatened abuse of the legal process.

Mann Act (1910): The Federal Mann Act (enacted in 1910) makes it a felony to knowingly transport any person in interstate or foreign commerce for prostitution, or for any sexual activity for which a person can be charged with a criminal offense. A person also violates the Act if he persuades, induces, entices, or coerces an individual to travel across state lines to engage in prostitution or other immoral purposes, or attempts to do so.

Minor: Under the TVPA, a minor is any person under the age of 18.

Military Extraterritorial Jurisdiction Act: The Military Extraterritorial Jurisdiction Act (MEJA) is the law that establishes United States Federal jurisdiction over offenses committed outside the United States—including trafficking in persons offenses—by persons employed by or accompanying the Armed Forces, or by members of the Armed Forces who are released or separated from active duty prior to being identified and prosecuted for the commission of such offenses, and for other purposes.

National Human Trafficking Resource Center: A nongovernmental organization working to combat human trafficking, operated by Polaris Project. The National Human Trafficking Resource Center (NHTRC) maintains a national, toll-free hotline, available to answer calls from anywhere in the United States 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, every day of the year. Callers can report tips and receive information on human trafficking by calling the hotline at 1-888-373-7888. The hotline also provides data on where cases of suspected human trafficking are occurring in the United States.

Other Country Nationals: People from countries other than the country you are in. This is the term now used instead of “Third Country Nationals,” which refers to individuals whose heritage is different than the country they are performing work in. An Ethiopian man working in Afghanistan is referred to as an “Other Country National."

Peonage/Debt Bondage: The status or condition of a debtor arising from a pledge by the debtor of his or her personal services or of those of a person under his or her control as a security for debt, if the value of those services as reasonably assessed is not applied toward the liquidation of the debt or the length and nature of those services are not respectively limited and defined.

Pimp: A person who controls and financially benefits from the commercial sexual exploitation of another person. The relationship can be abusive and possessive, with the pimp using techniques such as psychological intimidation, manipulation, starvation, rape and/or gang rape, beating, confinement, threats of violence toward the victim’s family, forced drug use, and the shame from these acts to keep the sexually exploited person under control.

PROTECT Act (2003): The PROTECT Act (Prosecutorial Remedies and Other Tools to end the Exploitation of Children Today Act) was enacted in 2003 to combat the sexual exploitation of children. Among other things, the Act requires courts to impose mandatory sentences for sex offenders and makes it a crime to travel abroad to engage in sexual conduct with minors. The Act amends the criminal code to increase supervision of convicted sex offenders for specific felonies. Additionally, the Act creates minimum standards and grants for states to expand their Amber Alert system for missing children.

Psychological Manipulation: A tactic to influence, manage, use, or control another person for one’s advantage (e.g., mind control).

Sex Trafficking: The recruitment, harboring, enticing, transporting, providing, obtaining, patronizing, soliciting, or maintaining of a person for the purpose of a commercial sex act.

Smuggling (human): Human smuggling is the facilitation, transportation, attempted transportation, or illegal entry of a person(s) across an international border, in violation of one or more countries laws, either clandestinely or through deception, such as the use of fraudulent documents. Human smuggling is generally with the consent of the person(s) being smuggled, who often pay large sums of money. Once in the country of their final destination they will generally be left to their own devices.

Trafficking in Persons: The TVPA defines "severe forms of trafficking in persons" as: (A) sex trafficking in which a commercial sex act is induced by force, fraud, or coercion, or in which the person induced to perform such act has not attained 18 years of age; or (B) the recruitment, harboring, transportation, provision, or obtaining of a person for labor or services, through the use of force, fraud, or coercion for the purpose of subjection to involuntary servitude, peonage, debt bondage, or slavery.

Trafficking Victims Protection Act: The Trafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPA) of 2000 is the first comprehensive federal law to address human trafficking. The TVPA addressed existing gaps in the legal framework by creating new criminal offenses and establishing victim protections. The law created a three-pronged approach of prevention, protection, and prosecution.

Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act: The Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act (TVPRA) includes several reauthorizations of the original TVPA 2000.

Uniform Code of Military Justice: The Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ) is the United States military law that establishes the rules for the independent operation, control, and command of the United States military’s four branches. Under the UCMJ (10 USC 47), military personnel—as well as civilian personnel such as contractors accompanying the armed forces during a declared war or a contingency operation—can be punished for criminal activity, including trafficking in persons related crimes. 


Victim/Witness Advocate:
Someone who provides services to victims or witnesses.